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What Is Pigmentation & Different Types Of Pigmentation

Published : July 12, 2023 11 mins read Updated On : Mar 22, 2024

Unmasking Pigmentation

Do you struggle with skin discolouration and pigmentation issues? If so, you're not alone. Many people deal with these concerns, but understanding the causes and types of pigmentation can help you find effective solutions. In this blog, we will delve into the world of pigmentation, exploring what it is and the different types that can affect your skin. We'll also discuss the various factors that contribute to skin pigmentation and share some interesting facts you may need to learn. Additionally, we'll cover important topics such as diagnosis, prevention, management, and home remedies for pigmentation. By the end of this blog, you'll have a comprehensive understanding of pigmentation and be equipped with valuable information to address your own skin concerns.

What is Pigmentation?

Pigmentation refers to the colouration of the skin, hair, and eyes, which is determined primarily by the presence and distribution of a pigment called melanin. Melanin is produced by specialised cells in the skin called melanocytes. It is responsible for providing colour and protection to the skin from harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Skin colour is determined by the quantity and type of melanin present. People with higher levels of melanin have darker skin, while those with lower levels have lighter skin. Additionally, melanin also plays a role in protecting the skin from the damaging effects of UV radiation by absorbing and scattering the UV rays.

Changes in pigmentation can occur due to various factors, including genetics, sun exposure, hormonal fluctuations, inflammation, and certain medical conditions. An increase in melanin production leads to hyperpigmentation, resulting in darkened patches or spots on the skin. On the other hand, a decrease in melanin production or loss of melanocytes can lead to hypopigmentation, causing lighter areas on the skin.

Pigmentation changes are a natural part of human variation. External factors like sun exposure can also influence them, so proper sun protection is essential in maintaining healthy skin pigmentation. Various treatments and skincare approaches are available to manage pigmentation concerns and achieve a more uniform skin tone.

Types of Pigmentation

There are various types of pigmentation that can affect the skin. These pigmentation changes can occur due to different reasons, such as hormonal changes, sun exposure, inflammation, and underlying medical conditions. Some common types of pigmentation include:

  • Hyperpigmentation: This is characterised by darkened patches or spots on the skin caused by an overproduction of melanin. Hyperpigmentation can be triggered by hormonal fluctuations, sun exposure, inflammation, or skin injuries. Common types of hyperpigmentation include:
  • Melasma or Chloasma: Also known as the "mask of pregnancy," melasma is a specific type of hyperpigmentation that occurs during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. It usually appears as brownish or greyish patches on the face, particularly on the cheeks, forehead, and upper lip.
  • Sunspots or Age Spots: These are dark spots that develop on areas of the skin exposed to the sun over time. They are commonly found on the hands, face, shoulders, and arms.
  • Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): This type of hyperpigmentation occurs because of inflammation or injury to the skin, such as acne breakouts, cuts, burns, or skin conditions like eczema.
  • Hypopigmentation: Hypopigmentation refers to light or white patches on the skin due to a decrease in melanin production or loss of melanocytes. Causes of hypopigmentation can include skin injuries, certain medical conditions, or genetic factors. Common examples of hypopigmentation include vitiligo and post-inflammatory hypopigmentation.
  • Albinism: Albinism is a genetic condition where the body does not produce enough melanin, leading to very light or pale skin, hair, and eyes. People with albinism may also have vision problems due to the lack of pigment in the eyes.
  • Lentigines: Lentigines, also known as liver spots or sunspots, are small, flat, and darkened areas on the skin that are caused by cumulative sun exposure over the years. They are more common in older individuals and often appear in areas exposed to the sun.
  • Freckles: Freckles are small, concentrated spots of increased melanin production, often triggered by sun exposure. They are more common in individuals with fair skin and may darken during sun exposure and fade during winter.

Causes of Pigmentation

Pigmentation refers to the colouration of the skin, hair, or eyes due to the presence of a pigment called melanin. Specialised cells called melanocytes create melanin. Various factors can lead to pigmentation changes, including:

  • Sun exposure: Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun stimulate melanocytes to produce more melanin as a protective mechanism against UV damage. Prolonged or excessive sun exposure can lead to hyperpigmentation, such as sunspots, freckles, and melasma.
  • Hormonal changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels, particularly estrogen and progesterone, can influence melanin production. This is commonly seen during pregnancy (melasma or "pregnancy mask") or while taking oral contraceptives.
  • Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH): Skin inflammation caused by conditions like acne, eczema, psoriasis, or injury triggers melanocytes to produce more melanin, leading to dark spots in the affected area.
  • Ageing: As we age, the distribution of melanin in the skin becomes less even, resulting in the formation of age spots or liver spots.
  • Genetics: The amount and type of melanin in an individual's skin are determined by genetic factors. Different ethnicities have varying levels of melanin, leading to differences in skin colour and susceptibility to certain pigmentation issues.
  • Skin injuries: Scarring from wounds or burns can cause the affected area to become darker due to increased melanin production during the healing process.
  • Medications: Some medications, like certain antibiotics, antimalarials, and antipsychotics, can cause pigmentation changes as a side effect.
  • Hormonal disorders: Conditions like Addison's disease or Cushing's syndrome can lead to abnormal hormone levels, which may affect melanin production.
  • Skin conditions: Certain skin disorders, such as vitiligo (loss of skin pigment) or albinism (absence of melanin), result in either localised or widespread pigmentation issues.

It is essential to protect your skin from excessive sun exposure, as it is one of the primary causes of pigmentation problems. Wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high SPF like Chicnutrix Block, using protective clothing, and seeking shade can help prevent or minimise sun-induced pigmentation changes.

Prevention and Management

Preventing and managing pigmentation issues can be achieved through a combination of lifestyle changes and proper skincare. Here are some tips for the prevention and management of pigmentation:

1. Sun protection: Protecting your skin from harmful UV rays is crucial in preventing pigmentation problems. Follow these steps:

  • Wear sunscreen with at least SPF 30 daily, even on cloudy days, and reapply every two hours if outdoors.
  • Use a broad-spectrum sunscreen that shields you from UVA and UVB radiation.
  • Chicnutrix Block can be used as it is a broad-spectrum sunscreen with SPF 45 PA+++; it has Niacinamide and Adenosine, is lightweight, non-greasy and doesn't leave a white cast.
  • When exposed to the sun, put on protective gear such as long sleeve shirts and wide-brimmed hats.
  • During the hottest part of the day (often between 10 am and 4 pm), seek shade.

2. Skincare routine: 

  • Adopt a skincare routine that promotes healthy skin and helps manage pigmentation issues:
  • Cleanse your face twice a day to get rid of dirt and pollutants.
  • Exfoliate regularly to promote cell turnover and fade existing pigmentation.
  • Use products with ingredients like vitamin C like Chicnutrix Super C, niacinamide, kojic acid, or alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) that can help fade dark spots and even out skin tone.
  • Avoid harsh or abrasive skincare products that may worsen pigmentation.

3. Avoid picking or squeezing acne: Picking at acne or blemishes can lead to post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, so it's essential to avoid this habit.

4. Topical treatments: 

  • Topical treatments like serums with ingredients like Niacinamide, Arbutin, Glutathione, Vitamin C & Triple Hyaluronic Acid Complex can help with pigmentation and result in glowing skin.
  • Chicnutrix Outshine is one such serum that has all of these ingredients in it.
  • This serum is made in Korea for the Indian skin, adds glow & radiance, improves skin texture, fights free radicals & protects against damage and makes skin even toned.
  • Regular use of this serum can result in glowing, radiant skin, improved skin texture, fighting free radicals & protection against damage while making skin even-toned.

5. Glutathione Supplements: 

  • Glutathione or as known as the body's "master antioxidant", plays a crucial role in protecting cells from damage caused by oxidative stress and free radicals and helps with pigmentation resulting in glowing even-toned skin.
  • The best way to consume Glutathione is in the form of effervescent supplements. Chicnutrix Glow is an ideal effervescent supplement, that combines the power of Glutathione and Vitamin C that work synergically to reduce pigmentation and enhance the skin's natural radiance.
  • Continuous use of Chicnutrix Glow can result in reduced dark spots, reduced pigmentation, even-toned skin and a healthy glow & radiance.

6. Home Remedies:

  • While home remedies may not provide the same level of effectiveness as topical treatments for pigmentation issues, they can help to some extent and promote healthier skin. Here are some home remedies that may help reduce pigmentation:
  • Lemon juice: The natural bleaching properties of lemon juice can help lighten dark spots and hyperpigmentation. With a cotton ball, dab freshly squeezed lemon juice over the areas of concern. Before you rinse it with water, let it remain for 10 to 15 minutes. However, lemon juice can be drying, so moisturise afterwards and avoid sun exposure after application.
  • Aloe vera: Aloe vera gel has soothing and healing properties that may help reduce pigmentation. Directly apply fresh aloe vera gel to the affected areas, let it sit for 20 to 30 minutes, then rinse it off. Repeat this process daily for several weeks to see potential improvements.
  • Turmeric: Curcumin, a compound found in turmeric, has both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Make a paste by mixing turmeric powder with milk or water and applying it to the pigmented areas. Give it 20 to 30 minutes to settle before rinsing it off. A few times a week, repeat this process.
  • Potato: Potatoes have natural bleaching properties and can help lighten dark spots. Cut a potato into slices or extract the juice and apply it directly to the affected areas. Before washing it off with water, let it sit on for 15-20 minutes. For several weeks, do this method every day.
  • Apple cider vinegar: Apple cider vinegar contains alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs), which can help exfoliate the skin and fade pigmentation. Mix equal parts of apple cider vinegar and water and apply it to the pigmented areas with a cotton ball. Leave it on for a few minutes, and then rinse off. Start with a diluted solution, as undiluted vinegar can cause irritation.
  • Milk: The lactic acid in milk acts as a mild exfoliant and can help lighten pigmentation. Apply the milk-soaked cotton ball to the afflicted regions. Rinse it off after leaving it on for 10 to 15 minutes. Repeat this process daily or a few times a week.

7. Diet:

  • While diet alone may not entirely resolve pigmentation issues, maintaining a healthy and balanced diet can contribute to overall skin health and help in managing pigmentation problems. Here are some dietary tips that may support skin health and minimise pigmentation:
  • Antioxidant-rich foods: Incorporate foods high in antioxidants, such as fruits (berries, oranges, kiwis) and vegetables (spinach, kale, carrots, tomatoes), into your diet. Antioxidants help neutralise free radicals that can contribute to skin damage and pigmentation.
  • Vitamin C: Foods rich in vitamin C can help in collagen production and skin repair. Include citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, grapefruits), bell peppers, strawberries, and broccoli in your diet.
  • Vitamin E: Vitamin E is another antioxidant that supports skin health. Nuts (almonds, hazelnuts), seeds (sunflower seeds, flaxseeds), and spinach are good sources of vitamin E.
  • Omega-3 fatty acids: Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties and can help maintain skin health. Include fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, sardines), flaxseeds, and chia seeds in your diet.
  • Water: Make sure you're getting enough water each day to stay hydrated. Hydration is crucial for healthy skin and can help flush out toxins.
  • Avoid excessive sugar and processed foods: High-sugar diets and processed foods may contribute to inflammation, which can exacerbate pigmentation issues. Be mindful of how much processed food and sugar you consume.
  • Green tea: Inflammation can be decreased by drinking green tea, which is high in antioxidants. Consider incorporating green tea into your daily routine.
  • Dark chocolate: Dark chocolate with a high cocoa content (70% or more) contains flavonoids that may benefit skin health. Enjoying a small amount of dark chocolate in moderation can be a delicious and healthy treat.
  • Probiotics: Consuming foods with probiotics, like yoghurt or fermented foods (kimchi, sauerkraut), may support gut health, which can indirectly benefit the skin.

Cut off alcohol and caffeine: Excessive alcohol and caffeine intake can dehydrate the skin and potentially contribute to skin issues. So, it's better to avoid it.

8. Be patient:
Treating pigmentation issues takes time, and results may not be immediate. Consistency in sun protection, skincare routines, and a proper lifestyle can lead to gradual improvement.

In conclusion, having a comprehensive understanding of the causes and types of skin discolouration is essential for effectively managing and preventing pigmentation issues. By being aware of the underlying factors that contribute to skin discolouration, you can make informed decisions about your skincare routine and take appropriate actions. From incorporating daily sunscreen use to exploring over-the-counter brightening options or seeking professional treatments for stubborn discolouration, several strategies are available to improve your skin's appearance. Remember, consistency and patience are crucial when it comes to managing pigmentation concerns.

Rochelle Rocque
Wellness, Beauty and Seasonal

Rochelle is a person who loves to learn and read new things. Writing is her way of communicating to the world, she writes what she feels. According to her writing is the best way to speak her mind.... Read More


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