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From Sunspots to Age Spots: Dealing with Pigmentation Issues 

Published : June 23, 2023 10 mins read Updated On : Jun 10, 2024

Dealing with pigmentation issues can be frustrating and challenging, whether it's sunspots, age spots, or other forms of pigmentation. However, understanding the causes of pigmentation is crucial in effectively preventing and treating it. This blog will delve into different types of pigmentation problems, including hyperpigmentation and melasma. We will explore the best options for prevention and treatment. Additionally, we will touch upon skin conditions that can be associated with pigmentation issues, such as acne, psoriasis, and eczema. Lastly, we will address common questions and provide helpful answers to provide comprehensive information on this topic.
From Sunspots to Age Spots: Dealing with Pigmentation Issues 

Understanding Pigmentation Issues

Pigmentation issues refer to the uneven or excessive production of melanin, the pigment responsible for the colour of our skin, hair, and eyes. Understanding these issues involves recognizing the various factors that can contribute to their development and the different types of pigmentation problems that can occur.

Causes of Pigmentation Issues:

  • Sun Exposure: Excessive sun exposure can trigger melanin production, leading to sunspots, freckles, and overall hyperpigmentation.
  • Hormonal Changes: Fluctuations in hormone levels, such as during pregnancy or while taking certain medications, can cause melasma, a type of pigmentation on face that appears as dark patches on the skin.
  • Ageing: As we age, our skin becomes more prone to developing age spots, also known as liver spots, due to cumulative sun damage.
  • Inflammation or Injury: Skin inflammation resulting from conditions like acne, eczema, or psoriasis can cause post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, leaving dark marks or patches on the affected areas.
  • Genetics: Some individuals may be genetically predisposed to certain pigmentation issues, such as having naturally darker skin or being more prone to freckles.

Difference between Pigmentation and Hyperpigmentation

Pigmentation refers to the natural colour of the skin, hair, and eyes, which is determined by the presence and type of pigment known as melanin in the body. It accounts for the wide range of skin tones and differences among individuals.

Hyperpigmentation, on the other hand, is a distinct condition characterized by the excessive production or uneven distribution of melanin in certain areas of the skin. This results in darker patches or spots that are darker than the surrounding skin. Various factors can trigger hyperpigmentation, including sun exposure, hormonal changes, inflammation, skin injury, or certain medications.

To summarise, pigmentation refers to the overall skin colour, while hyperpigmentation is a specific condition where dark patches or spots develop due to excessive melanin production or uneven distribution.

What is Melanin?

Melanin is a pigment produced by specialized cells called melanocytes, which are found in the basal layer of the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. It is responsible for determining the colour of our skin, hair, and eyes. Melanin is also present in other parts of the body, such as the iris, inner ear, and brain.

Melanin primarily protects the skin and underlying tissues from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun. When the skin is exposed to UV radiation, the melanocytes produce more melanin, which absorbs and scatters the UV rays, preventing them from penetrating deeper into the skin. This natural defence mechanism helps reduce the risk of DNA damage, sunburn, and skin cancer caused by excessive UV exposure.

Melanin exists in different forms and determines the range of skin colours observed in humans. Melanin comes in two main types:

  • Eumelanin: This type of melanin provides a range of black to brown pigmentation on face. It offers more protection against UV radiation due to its ability to effectively absorb and disperse the rays.
  • Pheomelanin: Pheomelanin is responsible for lighter pigments, such as red and yellow tones. It provides less protection against UV radiation compared to eumelanin.

Genetic factors and environmental influences, such as sun exposure and hormonal changes, determine the amount and distribution of melanin in the skin. Individuals with darker skin have more melanin and generally have higher natural protection against UV radiation. On the other hand, those with lighter skin have less melanin, making them more susceptible to sunburn and UV-related skin damage.

It's important to note that while melanin provides some protection against UV radiation, it could be better. Practising sun safety measures, such as wearing sunscreen, protective clothing, and seeking shade, is still crucial to minimize the risk of sun damage and related skin conditions.

Prevention and Treatment of Pigmentation

Preventing and treating pigmentation on face can be achieved through various approaches. It is crucial to understand the underlying causes, such as hormonal changes and sun damage, to prevent further pigmentation issues effectively. Consistently using a sunscreen product like Chicnutrix Block and wearing protective clothing is highly recommended. Additionally, incorporating a vitamin C supplement like Super C into your daily routine can help reduce inflammation. Maintaining an active lifestyle and following a proper skincare regimen can effectively keep hyperpigmentation problems at bay.

  • Wearing Sunscreen Daily
    Protecting your skin from harmful sun exposure is crucial to avoiding hyperpigmentation. It's essential to use sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30 on all exposed areas like your face, neck and hands, even if you are indoors Reapply sunscreen every two hours, especially if you've been swimming or working out. Opt for a broad-spectrum sunscreen like Chicnutrix Block, which provides protection against both UVA and UVB rays, while also considering wearing protective clothing such as hats or long-sleeved shirts during more prolonged bouts of sun exposure.

  • Using Topical Treatments
    For effective hyperpigmentation treatment, opt for skincare products with potent ingredients like Niacinamide, Arbutin, Glutathione, Vitamin C & Triple Hyaluronic Acid Complex like Chicnutrix Outshine – a brightening serum. In addition to this, it is crucial to use sunscreen daily, as UV exposure exacerbates pigmentation issues. Be consistent with the usage of topical treatments and exercise patience, as visible results may take several weeks or months.

  • Trying Glutathione Supplements
    Glutathione supplements are being explored as a potential solution for hyperpigmentation. Glutathione, a potent antioxidant, is believed to have the ability to decrease melanin production, which is responsible for skin colouration. Chicnutrix Glow, an effervescent supplement, combines Japanese OPITAC™ Glutathione and Vitamin C to work together in reducing pigmentation and enhancing the skin's natural radiance.

Skin conditions and pigmentation

Skin conditions and pigmentation refer to various abnormalities and changes in the colour and appearance of the skin. These conditions can affect people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, sun exposure, hormonal imbalances, inflammation, and certain medical conditions.

    1. Hyperpigmentation: Hyperpigmentation occurs when certain areas of the skin become darker than the surrounding skin due to excess production of melanin, the pigment responsible for skin colour.

Types of Hyperpigmentation:     

Sunspots or Solar Lentigines: Also known as age spots or liver spots, these are flat, tan, brown, or black spots that appear on areas of the skin frequently such as the hands, shoulders, and arms that are exposed to the sun.

Melasma: Melasma presents as larger patches of darkened skin, often with a symmetrical distribution. It commonly occurs on the face, particularly on the cheeks, forehead, bridge of the nose, and upper lip. Hormonal changes, such as during pregnancy or due to hormonal medications, can trigger melasma.

Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH): PIH is the darkening of the skin that follows an inflammatory condition or injury, such as acne, eczema, psoriasis, or even skin trauma. The affected areas may appear darker than the surrounding skin temporarily or for an extended period.

Causes of Hyperpigmentation:
Sun Exposure:
Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun stimulate the production of melanin, leading to the development of sunspots and an overall increase in pigmentation on face.
Hormonal Factors: Fluctuations in hormones, particularly estrogen and progesterone, can trigger melasma. This commonly occurs during pregnancy (chloasma or "the mask of pregnancy") or while taking hormonal medications.
Post-Inflammatory Response: Inflammation or injury to the skin can result in the release of inflammatory mediators that stimulate melanocytes (melanin-producing cells), leading to PIH (Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation).
Genetics: Some individuals may be genetically predisposed to develop hyperpigmentation, such as those with darker skin tones or a family history of pigmentation issues.

        2. Hypopigmentation: Hypopigmentation is the opposite of hyperpigmentation and refers to areas of the skin that are lighter or have lost their normal colour. This can occur due to a decrease in melanin production or loss of pigment-producing cells. Hypopigmentation includes conditions like albinism and vitiligo.

       3. Acne Scars: Acne scars are the result of inflamed acne lesions that have caused damage to the skin. They can appear as depressions or raised areas on the skin's surface and may be pigmented or discoloured.

       4. Eczema: Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by red, itchy, and inflamed patches of skin. In some cases, these patches may also become hyperpigmented or hypopigmented.

       5. Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune condition that speeds up the growth cycle of skin cells, leading to the development of thick, red, scaly patches on the skin. These patches may be associated with changes in skin pigmentation.

      6. Vitiligo: Vitiligo is a long-term condition characterized by the loss of pigment-producing cells, resulting in the development of white patches on the skin. It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys these cells.

Natural remedies for Pigmentation

Here are some natural solutions to help pigmentation:

  • Lemon juice: Incorporating lemon juice into your skincare routine can be beneficial. Lemon contains antioxidants that can help soothe inflammation and protect against UV damage. Its natural acids may also help inhibit melanin production and gradually lighten dark spots.

  • Aloe vera: Another natural remedy to consider is aloe vera. It is known for its soothing properties and can help reduce inflammation. Aloe vera also contains antioxidants that may aid in lightening hyperpigmentation and promoting overall skin health.

  • Turmeric: Including turmeric in your skin care regimen can be helpful due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This spice has been traditionally used to address various skin concerns, including hyperpigmentation. Its active compound, curcumin, may help even out skin tone and reduce the appearance of dark spots.

  • Green tea: Green tea is rich in antioxidants, such as catechins, which have been shown to protect the skin. Regularly applying green tea extract or using products that contain it may help reduce hyperpigmentation and promote a more even complexion.

  • Apple cider vinegar: Apple cider vinegar has been used for various skincare purposes, including addressing hyperpigmentation. Its natural acids help exfoliate the skin, fade dark spots, and promote a brighter complexion. To avoid irritation, it is important to dilute apple cider vinegar before applying it to the skin.

Frequently asked questions about pigmentation.

If you're experiencing pigmentation issues on your skin, it's common to have questions about the condition. Here are some frequently asked questions that can provide insights into the causes of hyperpigmentation, its relationship with melanin and other skin conditions such as melasma or age spots, prevention strategies, and effective treatments available.

What causes pigmentation?

Pigmentation means colouring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the colour of your skin. Your skin gets its colour from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body.

How does melanin relate to hyperpigmentation and other skin conditions like melasma or age spots?

Melanin plays a crucial role in hyperpigmentation as it determines skin colour, hair, and eyes. When there is an excess production or uneven distribution of melanin, it can lead to hyperpigmentation. Conditions like melasma and age spots are forms of hyperpigmentation caused by specific triggers, such as hormonal changes (melasma) or cumulative sun exposure (age spots).

Can pigmentation-related skin problems be prevented?

While it may not always be possible to prevent pigmentation-related skin problems completely, there are preventive measures that can be taken. These include wearing a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a high SPF like Chicnutrix Block, seeking shade during peak sun hours, wearing protective clothing, avoiding excessive sun exposure, and addressing hormonal imbalances or underlying medical conditions that may contribute to hyperpigmentation.

What are the available treatments for pigmentation?

Several treatments are available to address pigmentation. These include topical creams or serums, which can help lighten the skin. Glutathione and Vitamin C supplements like Chicnutrix Glow and Super C are also options for treating pigmentation.


In conclusion, pigmentation issues can be frustrating and affect your self-confidence. However, there are several prevention and treatment options available. From wearing sunscreen daily to trying glutathione supplements, there are ways to address hyperpigmentation and achieve a more even skin tone. Topical treatments like brightening serums can also be effective in reducing pigmentation. If you have any concerns or questions about pigmentation issues, don't hesitate to consult with a dermatologist. Remember to protect your skin from sun exposure by wearing SPF and limiting exposure during peak hours.

Rochelle Rocque
Wellness, Beauty and Seasonal

Rochelle is a person who loves to learn and read new things. Writing is her way of communicating to the world, she writes what she feels. According to her writing is the best way to speak her mind.... Read More


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